Basics and Educational Objectives




A lecturer of FKIP University of Tama Jagakarsa                             

Personal website: www.suparlan, E-mail:



Basics of Education
Under the Article 2 of Law No. 20 Year 2003 on the National Education System, the national education system is based on Pancasila and the Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia Year 1945.
Under these provisions, the national education is also rooted in the religious values by running the each religion for its adherents according to their respective religions, national culture of Indonesia and responsive to the changing demands of the times, the national state ideology is:

  1. Belief in God Almighty,
  2. Fair and civilized humanity,
  3. Unity of Indonesia
  4. Democracy, led by the inner wisdom of deliberations of representatives,
  5. Social justice for all Indonesian people

Educational objectives in line with objectives of this country
The purpose of education should be the direction of the destination country. Based on the 1945 Constitution, the goal of our believed country to be achieved through the proclamation of independence on August 17, 1945 are:

  1. Protect the entire Indonesian nation and the entire homeland of Indonesia and;
  2. To promote the general welfare,
  3. Educating the nation, and
  4. Participate in implementing world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice.

Multiple Intelligences

One of the four goals of the country is the purpose of education, i.e. educating the nation. The purpose of education educating the nation formulated by the founders of NKRI (the founding fathers) in 1945 has not been comprehensively elaborated by experts of education in Indonesia, ranging Ki Hajar Dewantara up with experts in education in the era of cutting-edge.
Precisely Howard Gardner in 1983 in his book Frames of Mind: Multiple Intelligence, has outlined INTELLIGENCE COMPOUND (multiple intelligences) into nine types of intelligence, including:

  • Spatial intelligence (visual);
  • Intelligence language (language, verbal);
  • Interpersonal intelligence (communication);
  • Intelligence music (music, art);
  • The naturalist intelligence (natural);
  • Bodily kinesthetic intelligence (sports);
  • Intrapersonal intelligence (reflection, self-evaluation);
  • Logical mathematical intelligence (mathematical logic, intellectual)
  • Spiritual intelligence (understanding the origin and direction of life)

In education, teaching and learning process, Benjamin S. Bloom has tried to distinguish THREE FIELD GOALS EDUCATIONAL as follows:
Cognitive Domain
• Knowledge (knowledge / rote learning / memory);
• Comprehension (understanding);
• Application (application);
• Analysis (analysis)
• syntesis (synthesis)
• Evaluation (Assessment / awards / evaluation)

Affective Domain
• Receiving (reception)
• Responding (answer)
• Valuing (judging)
• Organization (organizing)
• characterization – the Internalization of values (characterization / internalization).

Psychomotor (Skills) Domain:
• Knowing (knowing)
• understanding (understand)
• applying (applying)
• analyzing (analysis)
• Evaluating, and last (evaluate, and finally
• creating (creating)

Inheritance of The Father of  Ki Hajar Dewantara:

  1. Ing Ngarso Sung Tulodo
  2. Ing Madya Mangun Karso;
  3. Tut Wuri Handayani


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