National Educational System

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By: Suparlan *)

Lecturer of FKIP University of Tama Jagakarsa 

Abstract: What is the meaning of system? Sometime the author is confused with the meaning of system. A system is like a way to do something. In Indonesian language there is a word “sistim” but not “system.” System is different with “sistim.” There is no vocabulary “sistim” in Indonesian language. The word “system” sometime is translates as “sistim”. We do not have a word “sistim,” system in English can be translated in to “sistem.” So, what is the meaning of system? And what is the meaning of Indonesian Education system? System has three elements of system: (1) more than one component, (2) there is interconnection between the components, and (3) there is an objective or more that we have to achieve in the process of interconnection of the components. We have a simple example for this. We have the body as a system. We have a solar system in our universe. There are the systems. Our body is a system. The body has one head, one neck, two hands, and two foots. There are interconnection for all components of the body to achieve the objective of the body. That is a system. A head and the two hands have the relation to achieve an objective of the body. This is a simple example about a system. There is more complex example for a system, like a solar system. We have a sun, a world, a moon, and many stars in our solar system. All components of the solar system are like our body. The all components of the solar system have interconnection to achieve the process of universe.  So we can wake up in the morning and going to sleep at night. That is the process of universe. The author would like to explain the meaning of national education system, and explaining the history of the national education system at a glance along the development of the republic.

Key words: system, “sistem”, “sistim”, body, solar system, national education system.

Introduction

There are three elements of a system: (1) components of the system, (2) interrelationship between the components, and (3) objectives of the process of interrelationship or interlinked and integrated manner.

According to the Law Number 20 Year of 2003, “Indonesian nation educational system is the overall educational components are interlinked in an integrated manner to achieve national education goals.”

From the Law above, there are educational components, off course, more than one component. The components are interlinked in an integrated manner, and the last element is to achieve educational goals or objectives. The three elements of the national educational system are the holistic that can’t be separated. There are integrated manner to achieve educational objectives.

The components of education

The author believed that the people born are not alone. The components are born are not alone. Like the people are born with a single person. The components of education are not alone. There are the main three components of education: (1) students, (2) teachers or educators, and (3) curriculum. The main components are also the holistic, that can’t be separated. Without one of the three components, the proses of education do not exist. Without students, who will be studied? Without the teachers, who will teach them? Without the curriculum, what is learning material will be given to them? That is why the three components are the main components of education.

The existence of the facilities

How does the existence of the facilities in national education system? Does these facilities very important in the national education system? Do we need the white board and all kinds of facilities in the process of education? Do we need school building for the process of education? Do we need in focus, computers, and any other kinds of facilities in the process of education? Yes, off course. But the facilities are just the supporting facilities. Why?  Can the readers answer this question? I wait for the readers in the next writing.

National Standard of Education (NSP)

In the National Educational System, there are eight standard of national of educational: (1) standard of content or related to curriculum, (2) the standard of process (teaching-learning process), (3) graduate competency standards (related to students standards, (4) the standard of teacher and education personnel or related to teacher or education personnel, (5) the standard of educational facilities, (6) the standard of education management, (7) the standard of education financing, and (8) the assessment and evaluation standards of education.

Educational goals and objectives

The last element of a system is educational goals and objectives. Educational goals are the macro system, and educational objectives are related to the micro system in the teaching and learning activities. The educational objectives are related to the national goals of education in the Preamble of the Constitution of 1945. The formulation of educational goals or objectives is stated in the Preamble of the Constitution of 1945. The formulation is as below:

“Then instead of it to form a government of Indonesia that (1) protect the entire Indonesian nation and the entire homeland of Indonesia and (2) to promote the general welfare, (3) educating the life of nation, and (4) participate in implementing world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice, then drafted the independence of Indonesian nationality it is a Constitution of the state of Indonesia, which is formed in an arrangement of the Republic of Indonesia the sovereignty of the people based on the basis of Pancasila as the basis of state and the nation.

So, the formulation of educating the life of the state and nation called as to intellectualize the state and national, the same formulation with the multiple intelligences. This formulation is the same with the three domains of educational objectives designed by Benjamin S. Bloom with the covering three domains of: (1) attitude or affective domain, (2) knowledge, or cognitive domain and (3) skills, or psychomotor domain, through the process if the physical or raga or life skills. The three domains of educational objectives are

 

Home

Here is the National Educational System in Indonesia along the freedom of the state and nation. Along the process of implementation of education, this nation has six Laws of the National Education System:

(1)    Law Number 04 Year 1950;

(3)    Law Number 12 Year 1954;

(4)    Law Number 22 Year 1961;

(5)    Law Number 2 Year 1989; and

(6)    Law Number 20 Year 2003.

Conclusion

There are some conclusions can be focused below:

  1. “Sistem” is different meaning with a word “system.” The two words are not the same;
  2. There are the three main component of education: (1) students, (2) teacher, and (3) curriculum;
  3. System has three elements: (1) components, (2) interconnected, or interrelation among the components; (3) educational objectives or goals;
  4. There are four goals of state and national is formulated in the Preamble of Constitution of 1945: (1) protect the entire Indonesian nation and the entire homeland of Indonesia and (2) to promote the general welfare, (3) educating the life of nation, and (4) participate in implementing world order based on freedom, lasting peace and social justice.
  5. There are eight standards in national education system: (1) standard of content or related to curriculum, (2) the standard of process (teaching-learning process), (3) graduate competency standards (related to students standards, (4) the standard of teacher and education personnel or related to teacher or education personnel, (5) the standard of educational facilities, (6) the standard of education management, (7) the standard of education financing, and (8) the assessment and evaluation standards of education.
  6. That was said by John Dewey that “Education is not a preparation of life, but it is life itself.
  7. Three domains of educational objectives designed by Benjamin S. Bloom: (1) attitude or affective domain, (2) knowledge, or cognitive domain and (3) skills, or psychomotor domain, through the process if the physical or raga or life skills.
  8. There are six Laws of the National Education System:

(1) Law Number 04 Year 1950;

(2) Law Number 12 Year 1954

(3) Law Number 22 Year 1961;

(4) Law Number 2 Year 1989; and

(5) Law Number 20 Year 2003.

References:

Suparlan. 2016. Human Being and Writing. Masdik.com. Educational portal.

Djojonegoro, Wardiman. 1995. Fifty Years Development of Indonesian Education. Jakarta: Ministry of Education and Culture.

Suparlan. 2011. Tanya Jawab Pengembangan Kurikulum dan Materi Pembelajaran (Curriculum and Learning Material Development). Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Suparlan. 2006. Guru Sebagai Profesi. Yogyakarta: Hikayat.

Jakarta, 30 September 2016

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